2023 Legislation at a Glance – Part 2


As reported last week, this legislative session is packed full of pending bills with far reaching changes to land use controls and local control of such. In Part 1, we discussed some of the most significant bills introduced impacting the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), the State Density Bonus Law, and removal of an only in San Francisco allowance to appeal a building permit after a qualifying residential project receives entitlement. Here, in Part 2, we discuss significant bills introduced related to housing, parking, accessory dwelling units (ADUs), and other land use-related policies.

Accessory Dwelling Units

Since their introduction into housing nomenclature by former Bay Area lawmaker Senator Bob Wieckowski (D-Fremont) in 2016 with SB 1069 along with companion AB 2299 (Bloom), ADUs have become somewhat of a darling child in the housing production world. Over the years, several bills have passed intended to increase the production of ADUs. A few include a package – AB 68 (Ting), AB 587 (Friedman), AB 670 (Friedman), AB 671 (Friedman), AB 881 (Bloom), and SB 13 (Wieckowski) – enacted in 2019 and another pair of bills from 2022 – AB 2221 (Quirk-Silva) and SB 897 (Wieckowski). This year, we see proposals for further relaxation of controls on ADUs, including:

  • AB 1033 (Ting) would allow a local jurisdiction to permit condominiumization and sale of ADUs separate from the primary residence.
  • AB 1332 (Carillo) would require jurisdictions, by April 2025, to publish six sets of permit ready floor plans (studio, 1-bedroom, and 2-bedroom, in both standard and reverse formats) for detached ADUs.
  • AB 1661 (Bonta) would remove the requirement that an ADU be individually metered for electrical and gas service and allow for an ADU to use existing or upgraded meters on the property.
  • AB 976 (Ting) would make permanent an existing prohibition to imposing an owner-occupancy requirement on an ADU that sunsets January 1, 2025.
  • SB 477 (Committee on Housing) would create a new Government Code chapter to house state ADU regulations.

Constitutional Amendments

There are two noteworthy Constitutional Amendments being proposed this legislative session.

ACA 1 (Aguilar-Curry) Affordable Housing Bond Approval Threshold. Would lower the necessary voter threshold for approving affordable housing bonds from a two-thirds supermajority to 55%. This appears to be a set up for a forthcoming affordable housing bond (AB 1657, Wicks), slated to go before the voters in fall of 2024.

ACA 10 (Haney) Housing a Fundamental Right. Would amend the Constitution to declare that the state recognizes the fundamental human right to adequate housing for everyone in California. The amendment would impose a shared obligation on the state and local jurisdictions to respect, protect, and fulfill this right, by all appropriate means, including legislative action.

Relaxing of Parking Controls

In recent years, there has been an effort to reduce minimum parking controls. Last year, AB 2097 (Friedman) removed a local jurisdiction’s ability to impose any minimum parking requirements on residential or commercial development located within one-half mile of public transit (as defined). This year there is a trio of bills that will further relax parking controls local jurisdictions may impose:

  • AB 1317 (Carrillo) would require landlords to “unbundle” parking costs from rent from leases or rental agreements for residential property commencing or renewed on or after January 1, 2024.
  • AB 1308 (Quirk-Silva) would prohibit a local jurisdiction’s ability to increase the applicable minimum parking requirements of a single-family residence as a condition of approval to remodel, renovate, or add to a single-family residence.
  • AB 894 (Friedman) would allow properties with underutilized parking (as defined) to share spaces with other users, which would count toward meeting any automobile parking requirement.

Housing Policies

AB 1485 (Haney) Attorney General Right To Intervene in Actions Involving Violations of State Housing Laws. This bill would grant the Attorney General an unconditional right to intervene in any lawsuit filed over a potential violation of an enumerated list of state housing laws, including, among others, the Housing Accountability Act, Housing Crisis Act of 2019, and the Density Bonus Law.

AB 1532 (Haney) Streamlined Office to Residential Conversions. This bill would allow by-right, ministerial office to residential conversion projects statewide and limit fees and design requirements that local governments can impose on conversions. It would also allow an applicant to pay applicable impact fees over a ten-year period. It includes a skilled and trained workforce requirement. This bill has been converted to a two-year bill and we will likely not see any movement on it until next year.

AB 1633 (Ting) Housing Accountability Act Protection Extended to CEQA Review. This bill would expand the Housing Accountability Act’s definition of “disapprove the housing development project” to include any instance when a local agency fails to issue an exemption, fails to adopt a negative declaration or addendum for the project, or certify an environmental impact report or another comparable environmental document.

AB 281 (Grayson) Streamlining Post-Entitlement Permits. This bill would extend the post-entitlement permit timelines created by AB 2234 (2022, Rivas) to special districts. AB 2234 imposes the following timelines for review of post-entitlement applications for housing projects: (1) for projects with 25 units or fewer, a local agency shall complete first review and comment within 30 days of an application completion; and (2) for projects with 26 or more units, a local agency shall complete first review and comment within 60 days of an application completion.

AB 821 (Grayson) General Plan Consistency. This bill would provide that, in the event a local jurisdiction fails to amend a zoning ordinance to be consistent with the general plan within 90 days of receiving written notice of the inconsistency, a proposed development project cannot be deemed inconsistent with that zoning ordinance and cannot be required to be rezoned, if there is substantial evidence that (1) the proposed project is consistent with objective general plan standards and (2) the zoning for the project site is inconsistent with the general plan.

AB 919 (Karla) Stable Homes Act – Tenant Opportunity to Purchase. This bill would require a residential property owner, including owners of single-family homes, to (1) provide notice of their intent to sell the residential real property to each tenant and qualified entities and (2) allow each qualified entity ten days to give notice of interest and either 60 or 40 days to submit an offer to purchase to the owner. For a single-family residential property, the qualified entity must provide existing tenants eighteen months to purchase the entire residential property or to purchase improvements if the underlying land is to be retained by a community land trust.

SB 294 (Weiner) Minimum Floor Area Ratio Limits. This bill would expand the minimum floor area ratio (FAR) standards under state law that currently only apply to projects providing up to 10 units, to apply to all housing projects. The bill would prohibit municipalities from imposing an FAR limit less than 2.5 on housing projects providing 11-20 units. For housing projects over 20 units, it would prohibit an FAR limit less than 1.25 for every ten units.

SB 423 (Weiner) SB 35 Extension and Expansion. This bill would permanently extend SB 35 (2017, Weiner), which is currently set to expire January 1, 2026, and expand its applicably as discussed below:

  • Eligibility. This bill would allow SB 35 projects (1) in the coastal zone and (2) on wetlands or protected habitat if authorized by any other state or federal law. It would also apply in cities that have failed to adopt complaint housing elements as determined by HCD.
  • Labor Standards. This bill would remove the skilled and trained workforce requirement. Instead, the requirement to pay prevailing wages will remain, and on projects over 50 units, contractors would be required to offer apprentices employment and cover health care expenditures.
  • Clarifications. This bill clarifies that the planning director or other equivalent local government staff is required to make determinations about compliance with the objective planning standards, all departments required to weigh in on a project before granting entitlement must do such within SB 35’s time parameters (60 or 90 days depending on project size), prohibits the local government from requiring consultant studies to evaluate consistency with objective planning standards, removes references to public oversight from the design review process, and prohibits requiring compliance with any standards necessary to receive a postentitlement permit for purposes of the SB 35 approval.

SB 450 (Atkins) SB 9 Amendments. This bill would amend SB 9 (2021, Atkins), the fourplex/urban lot split legislation that took effect last year, by:

  • Removing the limitation on demolition of more than 25% of the existing exterior structural walls to be eligible for ministerial approval;
  • Prohibiting a local agency from imposing objective standards that do not apply uniformly to development within the underlying zoning or do not relate to the design or improvements of a parcel;
  • Removing the ability of a local jurisdiction to deny a SB 9 project if the building official makes a written finding that the proposed housing development project would have a specific, adverse impact on the physical environment;
  • Requiring the local agency to approve or deny a SB 9 application within 60 days from receiving a completed application; and
  • Requiring the local agency to provide a full set of comments to the applicant with a list of items that are defective or deficient and a description of how the application can be remedied by the applicant if it denies an application.

AB 1218 (Lowenthal) SB 330 Amendments. This bill would tweak SB 330 (2019, Skinner) by extending the protected unit demolition and replacement controls, which currently only apply to housing development projects, to projects that are not considered housing developments. This bill would also place the restrictions on demolition of protected units and replacement requirements into a separate provision that will apply permanently, which otherwise would become inoperative on January 1, 2030.

Land Use-Related Policies

SB 466 (Wahab) Rent Control Reform – 15-Year Look Back. This bill would amend Costa Hawkins to allow municipalities to apply rent control to properties that were issued a certificate of occupancy more than 15 years before the date the owner seeks to establish the rental rate. It would also remove the exemptions for properties that are alienable and separate from title to any other dwelling units, meaning rent control could be applied to single family homes and condos.

SB 745 (Cortese) Water Demand Reduction. This bill would require the California Building Standards Commission to propose mandatory building standards to reduce the potable water demand of new buildings by 25% from current mandatory design requirements and to minimize the use of potable water for nonpotable uses. The bill would require the Commission to adopt mandatory building standards for new buildings to be designed to capture graywater and use alternative water sources for nonpotable building and landscaping water uses.

SB 83 (Weiner) Electrical Grid Connection. This bill would require electrical utilities to connect, aka energize, a development project to the electrical grid within 8 weeks of the project being ready for interconnection (previously known as receiving a “green tag”). An alternative time period may be set and applies if an issue specific to the project or project site arises that would prevent the utility from safely completing the interconnection. This bill would further require a utility to compensate a development project applicant for failing to meet either the 8-week or the alternatively-set time period.


Authored by Reuben, Junius & Rose, LLP Attorneys Justin A. Zucker and Sabrina Eshaghi.

The issues discussed in this update are not intended to be legal advice and no attorney-client relationship is established with the recipient.  Readers should consult with legal counsel before relying on any of the information contained herein.  Reuben, Junius & Rose, LLP is a full service real estate law firm.  We specialize in land use, development and entitlement law.  We also provide a wide range of transactional services, including leasing, acquisitions and sales, formation of limited liability companies and other entities, lending/workout assistance, subdivision and condominium work.

2022 Housing Legislation Round-Up


This year was a blockbuster year for housing legislation coming from Sacramento. Last week, Governor Gavin Newsom signed into law more than three dozen bills related to housing and housing production. Below please find a brief overview of twelve housing bills signed by the Governor that become effective next year.

AB 682. Density Bonus for “Shared Housing” Buildings

AB 682 amends the State Density Bonus Law to create a density bonus for “Shared Housing” developments. Shared housing, or group housing as it is commonly known, is characterized by single-room units with shared access to common kitchen and dining facilities. Each unit is typically intended for one or two occupants and features a small kitchenette. This new density bonus will allow shared housing developments to build at greater densities in exchange for dedicating a percentage of units to affordable housing, with the same affordability requirements and bonus amounts as is currently available to standard-unit developments. Notably, shared housing developments can provide up to 25% of their floor area as standard-unit housing and still qualify for a density bonus.

AB 916. No Public Hearing to Increase Bedroom Count

AB 916 prohibits cities from requiring a public hearing for a permit to add up to two bedrooms by reconfiguring existing space within an existing dwelling unit.

AB 1551. Commercial Development Bonuses for Providing Affordable Housing

AB 1551 creates a density bonus for commercial developers who partner with housing developers and support the provision of affordable housing through land donation, cash payment, or by directly building units. A commercial developer is eligible for up to a 20% density bonus. To qualify, the housing development supported by the commercial developer must provide either 30% of units as affordable for low income (<80% AMI) or 15% of units as affordable for very-low income (<50% AMI).

AB 2011. Affordable Housing and High Road Jobs Act

AB 2011 provides streamlined, ministerial approval of multifamily housing developments that contain affordable housing units located in commercial zones. Two tiers of development are available, depending on the amount of affordable housing provided. A project dedicating 100% of units as affordable for lower income households can be developed by right on most parcels zoned for retail, office, or parking uses. A project with market-rate units that provides a specific percentage of rental or ownership units as affordable for either lower income or very-low income households can be developed by right on parcels zoned for retail, office, or parking if the site has at least 50 feet of frontage on a commercial corridor (a street between 70 and 150 feet wide). AB 2011 projects are also subject to certain prevailing wage and skilled workforce requirements. We have discussed AB 2011 in greater detail in previous updates on August 24, 2022, and September 1, 2022.

SB 6. Middle Class Housing Act

SB 6 is intended to increase the development potential for middle-income housing by principally permitting housing developments that meet specific criteria in areas zoned for office, retail, or parking uses. Eligible developments are required to meet or exceed certain density thresholds established in the state’s Housing Element law, such as 30 units per acre in metropolitan settings or 20 units per acre in suburban settings. SB 6 projects must also meet certain prevailing wage and skilled and trained workforce requirements, although a development can be exempted from these in certain circumstances.

AB 2334. Density Bonus in Very Low Vehicle Travel Area

AB 2334 expands the available density bonus for 100% affordable housing developments in very low vehicle travel areas. A “very low vehicle travel area” is a transit analysis zone where existing residential development generates 85% or fewer vehicle miles traveled per capita than the regional area in which it is located. Qualifying density bonus projects are not subject to maximum density controls, are entitled to up to 4 development incentives, and may receive an additional three-stories of height. This additional density bonus is only available in the counties of the Bay Area, Sacramento, the Southern Coast, and Inland Empire. AB 2334 also clears up the grey area for application of the state density bonus in a form-based zoning district, requiring calculation of an “average unit size” multiplied by the density bonus amount to determine increase in floor area allowed.

AB 2653. Housing Element Reporting

AB 2653 alters some of the requirements for annual housing element reports cities must submit to the state. Cities must include greater detail, including the numbers of all new and demolished housing units in the jurisdiction, as well as data on all approved density bonus projects. AB 2653 also provides a mechanism for the state to request corrections and make referrals for enforcement.

AB 2668. SB 35 Streamlining Updates

AB 2668 amends SB 35 clarifying streamlined SB 35 projects are not subject to any non-legislative discretionary approval and that density bonus units are not considered when calculating whether a project satisfies SB 35’s affordability requirements. Further, the bill prohibits cities from denying an application for missing materials if there is enough information to allow a reasonable person to conclude the development is consistent with the applicable objective standards. AB 2668 also brings important change to how the Cortese List affects SB 35 eligibility. Placement on the Cortese List, which is the aggregate of the state’s decentralized hazardous waste sites databases, disqualifies a site from SB 35, until it is cleared for residential use by the authority having jurisdiction. However, longstanding confusion over the mechanism of clearing a site meant that once a site was listed, it was effectively barred from SB 35 permanently, even if it had undergone extensive remediation. AB 2668 establishes specific criteria, documentation, and agency determinations that allow a “listed” site to qualify for SB 35.

AB 2221 & SB 897. ADU Law Updates

AB 2221 and SB 897 make a number of changes to existing ADU law to provide for greater development flexibility and ensure consistent and efficient project review. Under these bills, a city that denies an ADU application will be required to provide a full set of written comments that includes a list of all deficient items and details how the application can be remedied. These comments must be provided within the existing 60-day review period. Additionally, a city will be prohibited from denying an ADU application based on nonconforming zoning conditions, building code violations, or unpermitted structures that are not affected by the ADU construction and do not pose a threat to safety.

The bills also increase ADU development potential by restricting setbacks that prevent ADUs below a minimum floor area, increasing the minimum height limit for ADUs located near transit stops or attached to primary dwellings, and prohibiting owner-occupancy requirements until January 1, 2025.  Importantly, the addition of an ADU will no longer constitute a change of R occupancy under the building code such as from an R3 (single-family or duplex) to an R2 (multi-family), and will not trigger a requirement for fire sprinklers if not previously required.

AB 2234. Post-Entitlement Permit Processing

AB 2234 focuses on post-entitlement non-discretionary building permit processes after the planning process has concluded and environmental review is complete. AB 2234 requires local agencies to compile a list of information need to approve or deny a post-entitlement permit, a checklist and post an example of a completed, approved application. AB 2234 also sets timelines for review of post-entitlement applications for housing projects: (a) for projects with 25 units or fewer, a local agency shall complete first review and comment within 30 days of an application completion; and (b) for projects with 26 or more units, a local agency shall complete first review and comment within 60 days of an application completion. These time limits are tolled if a local agency requires review of an application by an outside third-party reviewer. Failure to meet these timelines is a violation of the Housing Accountability Act.


Authored by Reuben, Junius & Rose, LLP Attorneys Justin A. Zucker and Daniel J. Turner.

The issues discussed in this update are not intended to be legal advice and no attorney-client relationship is established with the recipient.  Readers should consult with legal counsel before relying on any of the information contained herein.  Reuben, Junius & Rose, LLP is a full service real estate law firm.  We specialize in land use, development and entitlement law.  We also provide a wide range of transactional services, including leasing, acquisitions and sales, formation of limited liability companies and other entities, lending/workout assistance, subdivision and condominium work.

AB 2011 Could Unlock Mixed-Income Housing

AB 2011

East Bay state representative Buffy Wicks, along with other co-sponsors including Senator Scott Wiener, proposed a compelling bill that aims to bridge a long-sought gap between pro-housing advocates’ desire for streamlining code-compliant multi-family residential projects with on-site affordability (both mixed-income and 100% affordable), and construction labor unions’ desire to ensure fair wages and future training for its members.

Known as the High Road Jobs Act of 2022, AB 2011 would allow ministerial, by-right approval for certain multi-family affordable housing. A development project in a zoning district where office, retail, and parking are principally permitted would be subject to streamlined, ministerial review if it meets many of the requirements for SB 35 eligibility, as well as additional locational and affordability requirements. AB 2011 projects would not need to obtain discretionary entitlements and would not be subject to CEQA.

To qualify for AB 2011 streamlining, housing development projects must either provide 100% affordability, or provide on-site affordable units, aka BMRs, in a primarily market rate project. As amended in the Senate on August 11, the on-site BMR requirement is somewhat complicated for rental units, but essentially requires between 12-15% BMRs unless a local requirement is higher, in which case the local program applies and additional AMI restrictions could be required. For condos, 30% could be offered at moderate income or 15% at lower income, and the same caveat about higher local requirements applies.

These projects would be subject to objective development standards, and additional qualifying criteria. As of August 11, the criteria for mixed-income projects include, but are not limited to:

  • proposing a multi-family housing development project;
  • abutting a commercial corridor and having a frontage at least 50 feet in width, on a site 20 acres or less in size;
  • not demolishing rent controlled or deed-restricted affordable units, or listed historic resources;
  • replacing no more than four existing units;
  • located no closer than 500 feet from a freeway;
  • providing relocation assistance to certain commercial tenants; and
  • vacant properties that are not zoned for multifamily residential use cannot qualify for streamlined ministerial processing.

Once an AB 2011 development application is submitted, several streamlining provisions apply. The local government must determine whether the project complies with objective planning standards within 60-90 days depending on unit count. If a local government determines that a project does not comply with objective planning standards, it must provide a written explanation to the proponent within this timeframe. Further, any design review must be completed within 90-180 days. Projects using the streamlined approval process would also be eligible for density bonuses, incentives, concessions, waivers, reductions in development standards, and potentially reduced parking ratios, under California’s density bonus law.

AB 2011 projects would also be required to pay construction workers at least the prevailing rate of wages and certify their compliance with this provision with the local government. As part of the developer’s obligation to pay prevailing wages, developers building 50 or more units of housing must submit monthly compliance reports to the local government.

Importantly, projects utilizing AB 2011 would not be a project for the purposes of CEQA (i.e. no environmental review) and the approval procedures the municipality would be permitted to use would solely be ministerial in nature.

In May of 2022, AB 2011 passed out of the California State Assembly, and is currently with the Senate, where it was voted out of committee on August 11. The bill has received several key union endorsements, including from the California Conference of Carpenters and SEIU. However, other unions, such as the State Building and Construction Trades Council of California, the San Francisco Building and Construction Trades Council, and the California Labor Federation have opposed the bill claiming it would “eliminate[] the mandate that a skilled-and-trained workforce be a part of… [project] construction crews.” Unions such as the Building Trades Council oppose the bill because the bill would not require developers to use a “skilled and trained workforce,” which has the effect of eliminating the requirement that a certain percentage of workers on a project are unionized. The bill provides instead that for developments streamlined under AB 2011 that workers be paid a “prevailing wage” with some additional benefits such as healthcare coverage.

We will continue to track this potential game-changer of a bill as it makes its way through Sacramento.


Authored by Reuben, Junius & Rose, LLP Attorneys Mark Loper and Daniel J. Turner, and Law Clerk Alex Klein.

The issues discussed in this update are not intended to be legal advice and no attorney-client relationship is established with the recipient.  Readers should consult with legal counsel before relying on any of the information contained herein.  Reuben, Junius & Rose, LLP is a full service real estate law firm.  We specialize in land use, development and entitlement law.  We also provide a wide range of transactional services, including leasing, acquisitions and sales, formation of limited liability companies and other entities, lending/workout assistance, subdivision and condominium work.

State Takes Aim at Housing Fees and Permit Delays

housing fees

After a productive legislative year in 2021, the state legislature is continuing to tackle California’s ongoing challenges related to the housing crisis and lengthy processing times. Two bills would aim to minimize some of the roadblocks facing housing projects by bringing down both direct costs and holding costs. First, AB 2063 proposes to codify the state’s often disregarded stance that affordable housing fees do not apply to density bonus units. This would eliminate a significant cost for density bonus projects, which play a vital role in increasing housing production across the state. Second, AB 2234 proposes to enact time limits on processing and approving post-entitlement permits to create a more efficient and consistent process.  Both of these bills would help address some of the root causes of the high cost of building housing, including increasing impact fees and long-term holding costs associated with permitting.

AB 2063

This bill would update the State Density Bonus Law to clarify that affordable housing fees cannot be applied to density bonus units, except in limited circumstances. Although this is a relatively simple bill, its impact would be huge for housing projects in jurisdictions that have been requiring hundreds of thousands, and sometimes millions, in affordable housing fees on top of the on-site affordable housing units needed to qualify for the density bonus. The Attorney General issued an opinion in 2019 that this practice of applying impact fees on density bonus units was not permitted under the State Density Bonus Law. The Attorney General’s reasoning was that the imposition of these fees on density bonus units disincentivizes what the legislature clearly wished to incentivize—the construction of affordable housing. Despite the Attorney General’s opinion, some cities continue to apply affordable housing fees on density bonus units. This bill would codify the Attorney General’s opinion, putting this practice to rest.

The bill was introduced on February 14, 2022 by Assembly Member Berman and is sponsored by the Housing Action Coalition, a nonprofit that advocates for building more housing for California residents of all income levels. It was unanimously passed by the Assembly Housing and Community Development Committee on April 5th and the Assembly Local Government Committee on April 20th. It is now under review by the Appropriations Committee.

AB 2234

The Permit Streamlining Act sets time limits for the review and approval of entitlements. Its impact has been limited since its time limits run from completion of CEQA review, which is typically the main driver of entitlement schedules. This bill aims to put a similar, but more effective, framework in place for post-entitlement approvals. Due to challenges associated with staffing, permitting backlogs have long been a problem, especially in large cities with high volumes of construction. These delays increase holding costs and slow overall housing production. Given today’s inflationary environment, delays are even more problematic.

The bill would apply limits on the review process for all nondiscretionary permits for projects that are at least two-thirds residential. This would apply to building permits and permits for off-site improvements, demolition, excavation, and grading. Failure to meet any of the time limits would be treated as a violation of the Housing Accountability Act.

Specifically, the bill would require local jurisdictions to:

  • Publish an online checklist of requirements for applications to be deemed complete along with an example of an ideal application that developers can use as a reference. Cities with a population of at least 250,000 will also be required to accept and update the status of applications online, including noting whether anything is required from the applicant.
  • Provide written notice regarding whether the application is complete within 15 days. If a local agency does not make a timely determination, the application will be deemed complete.
  • Approve or deny a post-entitlement permit within 30 days of deeming the application complete for projects with up to 25 units, or within 60 days for projects with 26 or more units. This would not apply if the city makes a written finding that the permit may have a specific adverse impact on public health or safety and additional time is necessary to process the application.
  • Provide a process for applicants to appeal an incomplete determination and denial of a complete application within 60 days for projects with up to 25 units, or 90 days for projects with at least 26 units.

The bill was introduced by Assembly Members Rivas and Grayson on February 15, 2022 and is cosponsored by the Housing Action Coalition and Silicon Valley Leadership Group. It is scheduled to be heard by the Assembly Local Government Committee today.

We will continue to monitor these bills and keep you updated as they move through the legislative process.


Authored by Reuben, Junius & Rose, LLP Attorney Sabrina Eshaghi.

The issues discussed in this update are not intended to be legal advice and no attorney-client relationship is established with the recipient.  Readers should consult with legal counsel before relying on any of the information contained herein.  Reuben, Junius & Rose, LLP is a full service real estate law firm.  We specialize in land use, development and entitlement law.  We also provide a wide range of transactional services, including leasing, acquisitions and sales, formation of limited liability companies and other entities, lending/workout assistance, subdivision and condominium work.