Force Majeure and Covid: Implications on Tenancies and Rental Payments

force majeure

What happens when a tenant does not pay rent citing the financial impacts of the COVID pandemic?  Can such tenant rely on the force majeure provision in the lease to excuse the payment of said rent?  These questions arose in lease contexts throughout the pandemic and a recent Court of Appeal case weighed in on one such situation.  In West Pueblo Partners, LLC v. Stone Brewing Co., LLC (C.A. 1st, April 3, 2023.  Westlaw Cite: 2023 WL 3151827), the court found that West Pueblo Partners, LLC (“Landlord”) could bring an unlawful detainer action to evict Stone Brewing Co., LLC (“Tenant”) and Tenant was not excused from paying rent due to a force majeure event, specifically the COVID pandemic.

In West Pueblo, Tenant operated a brewery and restaurant that was shut down in different capacities due to COVID restrictions during 2020 and 2021.  Tenant alleged they did not have to (and in fact did not) pay rent citing the force majeure provision in the lease which stated in relevant part “if a party is delayed from performing any of its obligations under the lease due to act of god or governmental act, then the time for performance of such party shall be extended for an equivalent amount of time.”  Tenant argued the governmental regulations and business interruptions triggered the force majeure provision and they were excused from paying rent during such time period.

The Court of Appeal reviewed the force majeure provision in the lease (which, to note, did not include a typical qualification that the payment of rent is always required regardless of any force majeure event) and found that if the force majeure event had effectively stopped Tenant from paying rent, that is one thing (for example, a snowstorm blocked the ability to send a wire), but here they had the financial means and chose not to pay the rent due to COVID restrictions and negative impacts on their business.  The Court of Appeal also dug into prior cases analyzing force majeure provisions generally and reiterated that “the qualifying event must have still caused a party’s timely performance under the contract to become impossible or unreasonably expensive.”  The Court of Appeal found that force majeure events which merely make performance unprofitable or more difficult or expensive do not suffice to excuse a contractual obligation.

The West Pueblo court did repeatedly note that Tenant admitted it had the financial means to pay the rent but elected not to do so.  This was a relevant consideration for the Court of Appeal when it reviewed other (out of state) cases on the subject which held certain tenants were excused from paying rent due to COVID and force majeure considerations.  In those cases, the tenants could not pay rent due to COVID because they did not have the financial ability to do so.  Here, Tenant was a company with multiple operations and admitted it could have paid the rental amounts due, but obviously had dramatically less income due to the restrictions.

The West Pueblo case highlights that although a party’s performance may be delayed if they are unable to act due to the force majeure event, it does not necessarily excuse them from performing said action if it was just more expensive or much harder to do so.  It must be impossible or egregiously expensive to comply in order to warrant excusing a contractual obligation.  Even COVID restrictions, which decimated restaurants’ ability to make money, do not necessarily insulate such tenants from their obligations under their leases.  This is especially true if the tenant objectively has the means to make the rental payment otherwise.


Authored by Reuben, Junius & Rose, LLP Attorney Lindsay Petrone.

The issues discussed in this update are not intended to be legal advice and no attorney-client relationship is established with the recipient.  Readers should consult with legal counsel before relying on any of the information contained herein.  Reuben, Junius & Rose, LLP is a full service real estate law firm.  We specialize in land use, development and entitlement law.  We also provide a wide range of transactional services, including leasing, acquisitions and sales, formation of limited liability companies and other entities, lending/workout assistance, subdivision and condominium work.